By John Charles Chasteen

ISBN-10: 0195178815

ISBN-13: 9780195178814

ISBN-10: 0195392361

ISBN-13: 9780195392364

ISBN-10: 1435633601

ISBN-13: 9781435633605

In 1808, international background took a decisive flip whilst Napoleon occupied Spain and Portugal, a eu occasion that had lasting repercussions greater than part the area away, sparking a chain of revolutions through the Spanish and Portuguese empires of the hot international. those wars for independence resulted ultimately within the construction of 19 autonomous Latin American republics. this is an engagingly written, compact background of the Latin American wars of independence. continuing virtually cinematically, scene by means of bright scene, John Charles Chasteen introduces the reader to steer gamers, uncomplicated techniques, key occasions, and dominant tendencies, braided jointly in one, taut narrative. He vividly depicts the participants and occasions of these tumultuous years. listed below are the recognized leaders--Simón Bolívar, José de San Martín, and Bernardo O'Higgins, Father Hidalgo and Father Morelos, and so forth. the following too are lesser identified Americanos: patriot girls comparable to Manuela Sáenz, Leona Vicario, Mariquita Sánchez, Juana Azurduy, and Policarpa Salavarrieta, indigenous rebels corresponding to Mateo Pumacahua, and African-descended generals equivalent to Vicente Guerrero and Manuel Piar. Chasteen captures the collection forces for independence, the clashes of troops and judgements of leaders, and the wealthy, tricky tapestry of Latin American societies as they embraced nationhood. by means of the tip of the interval, the leaders of Latin American independence might embody classical liberal principles--particularly renowned sovereignty and self-determination--and completely increasing the worldwide succeed in of Western political values. this day, many of the world's oldest functioning republics are Latin American. And but, Chasteen observes, many be afflicted by a afflicted political legacy that dates again to their delivery. during this booklet, he illuminates this legacy, while he illustrates how the region's dramatic fight for independence issues unmistakably ahead in international heritage.

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Humboldt Inspects Peru and New Spain Humboldt and Bonpland were headed toward New Spain in January 1803, when María Teresa died. To amuse himself on the northward voyage along the Pacific coast of South America, Humboldt did his usual sampling of seawater and currents. In so doing he became the first to measure a major global phenomenon, now called the Humboldt Current, a sort of Gulf Stream in reverse that conveys frigid polar waters toward the equator. During 1802, Humboldt and Bonpland had investigated Inca history in Peru and become fascinated by the great Andean heartland of indigenous América, with its farming villages where Quechua, the language of the Incas, remained the normal language of conversation.

He recorded how the indigenous people of Cuba had been entirely destroyed by the late 1500s, how the island remained a sparsely populated hide-producing frontier zone in the 1600s. Not until the British occupied Havana in 1762, opening the door for British slave traders, did the Cuban economy begin to take off. The spreading cane fields of the 1780s and 1790s made western Cuba an agricultural dynamo. By the time Humboldt and Bonpland arrived, thousands of chained Africans passed through the Havana customs house yearly, with a steady upward trend, and the number for the whole island, including contraband slaves, was much higher.

In the colonial Venezuela where Simón Bolívar grew up surrounded by enslaved servants, the principle of inequality, or rather hierarchy, ruled. Fairness was not an issue. Rulers spoke of inherited honor and privilege without embarrassment. People without honor simply did not deserve the same treatment as honorable people. Only troublemakers tried to work their way up in life. A person stripped of honor should shut up and hang his head in court, believed the cabildo. Moreover, honor, the index of inequality, ran in families.

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Americanos: Latin America's Struggle for Independence (Pivotal Moments in World History) by John Charles Chasteen

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