By Farrell, Jay

ISBN-10: 0071642668

ISBN-13: 9780071642668

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Sample text

2. The geographic z-axis points toward the interior of the ellipsoid along the ellipsoid normal. , along the projection of the Earth angular rate vector ω ie onto the plane orthogonal to the z-axis). The y-axis points east to complete the orthogonal, right-handed rectangular coordinate system. Since the origin of the geographic frame travels along with the vehicle, the axes of the frame rotate as the vehicle moves either north or east. 6. Because the geographic frame rotates with respect to inertial space, the geographic frame is not an inertial frame.

Note that there is no uncertainty in the kinematic model of the system: no unknown parameters and no random signals. If a sensor is available that provides a continuous-time measurement a ˜(t) of the acceleration a(t), then a navigation system could integrate this measurement through the kinematic model to provide an estimate of the system state vector x = [p, v] . Throughout this book, the equations for computing the state estimate based on the integration of sensor signals through the vehicle kinematics will be referred to as the mechanization equations.

The vector xe defines the x-axis of the ECEF frame. CHAPTER 2. 2 Earth Centered Earth Fixed (ECEF) Frames This frame has its origin fixed to the center of the Earth. 25 daily Earth rotations per year plus the one annual revolution about the sun. Relative to inertial frame, the Earth rotational rate vector expressed relative to the ECEF axes is ω eie = [0, 0, 1] ωie . The Earth’s geoid is usually approximated as an ellipsoid of revolution about its minor axis. , ellipsoid) and gravitation model parameters must be used in any given application.

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