By Henning Andersen (Ed.)
This number of papers consolidates the statement that linguistic switch commonly is actualized step-by-step: any structural innovation being brought, accredited, and generalized, over the years, in a single grammatical atmosphere after one other, in a development that may be understood through connection with the markedness values and the rating of the conditioning beneficial properties. The advent to the quantity and a bankruptcy through Henning Andersen make clear the theoretical bases for this commentary, that's exemplified and mentioned in separate chapters through Kristin Bakken, Alexander Bergs and Dieter Stein, Vit Bubenik, Ulrich Busse, Marianne Mithun, Lene Schøsler, and John Charles Smith within the mild of information from the histories of Norwegian, English, Hindi, Northern Iroquoian, and Romance. a last bankruptcy via Michael Shapiro provides a philosophical viewpoint. The papers have been first offered in a workshop on “Actualization styles in Linguistic switch” on the XIV overseas convention on old Linguistics, Vancouver, B.C. in 1999.
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Extra info for Actualization: Linguistic Change in Progress. Papers from a Workshop Held at the 14th International Conference on Historical Linguistics, Vancouver, B.C., 14 August 1999
This is the case with the orientation of the body when it is carried to the grave: we usually enter this world head first, and so it is 'natural' that we should leave it feet first . It is in an inversion of this 'natural' order that the 'bad dead' are carned to the grave head first . The funeral rites on Roti are one of many examples of ritual behavior in which a series of symbolic elements are concatenated predominantly or wholly on the basis of their markedness values. Similar patterns of rule-governed behavior have been observed and described all over the world since the pioneering work of Herz (1909, cf.
Figure 1 (c). This special class probably includes as a subspecies all true converse oppositions (such as the divalent "parent of' vs. "child of') (Lyons 1977:279-280). , "up" vs. "down", "in" vs. "out") (Lyons 1977:281-282) are another subspecies. They may be genuinely contradictory (witness the directions of a moving elevator), but are generally contrary (consider "look up" vs. "look down"). 2. Similar considerations may clarify the relationship between exclusive modes of opposition (Table 8 (a)) and inclusive ones (Table 8 (b)).
The superordinate term remains a merely virtual hypernym, for there is no use for its generic reference potential. 4 below). But the inclusive term retains its status as the superordinate, unmarked term, as witnessed, among other things, by its place in irreversible binomials and perhaps by its greater derivational potential. And its virtual status of hypernym may in time be realized through linguistic innovation, as in the case of Sp. padres "fathers" > "parents" and Eng. fathers "fathers" in fore-fathers "ancestors"; cf.
Actualization: Linguistic Change in Progress. Papers from a Workshop Held at the 14th International Conference on Historical Linguistics, Vancouver, B.C., 14 August 1999 by Henning Andersen (Ed.)
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